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Handling the Future Outcome of the Coronavirus Pandemic

Editor’s Note: This article first appeared on EDM Digest.

By Dr. Randall HanifenFaculty Member, Emergency & Disaster Management at American Military University 

While some pockets of the United States have noted increased cases of coronavirus infection, much of the anticipated spikes in cases and the EMS calls that were supposed to happen have not.

Does that mean we can go back to normal? Does it mean we can stop our emergency planning? Neither should be the case.

The Systematic Reopening of the Economy during This Pandemic

Many municipalities are beginning step-by-step preparations for the cautious and gradual reopening of businesses and determining what actions need to be taken for each step. Like the pandemic shutdown, we will be unable to simply flip the switch and have all of the necessary work occur in a week or less.

[Related: Leadership during COVID-19: Building an Incident Action Plan]

To ensure that we continue to have a successful flattening of the curve, we must use a risk-benefit model to create a practical plan for action. One possibility is to use a Gannt chart for planning purposes. This type of chart would clearly show tasks to be undertaken over time, when those actions were taken, who performs the work and how that work relates to other actions, such as the work of a state government.

In my case, we are in a tri-state region. Fortunately, we collect the number of confirmed COVID-19 cases for the region’s governments to make informed decisions. But ultimately, there will be three states with three governments who are all acting in different ways.

Georgia, for example, has decided to move ahead and reopen some non-essential businesses despite the continued risk of coronavirus infection; other state leaders may take similar action. But this choice could worsen the coronavirus situation, because many stakeholders will receive mixed messages about what actions are appropriate to take.

Some employees are now restless and ready to take a vacation with their families. Also, others care for elderly siblings and want to remain socially distant while working from home. Similarly, there may be some employees who have become accustomed to working from home and cannot see why this state of affairs could not become permanent.

Tying your planning to a particular state, preferably the one in which your municipality resides, will be key to bringing the spread of the coronavirus back under control now and in the future.

The Future of the Coronavirus Pandemic Has Tested Our Expertise

Although there are plenty of health experts to forecast the future, the current pandemic is ultimately unpredictable. Passionate protests are occurring as people long to go back to their normal lives.

A quick Google search about the 1918 flu pandemic shows how a previous pandemic played out, according to National Public Radio. This pandemic occurred in three waves:

  • Spring 1918: The first wave and the smallest spike of disease cases
  • Fall 1918: The second and largest wave, which was exponentially worse than the first wave in terms of infection and deaths
  • Winter 1918: The third wave

The second wave was much worse than the other two waves due to the same sociological factors that are appearing today. These factors include the lack of spending, the need for the economy to return to normal and the social isolation felt by many people. The desire to return to normal is driving decision makers to speed the reopening of their economies.

Some local governments are even passing legislation requiring openings to occur as fast as possible. This action is understandable, as most of the country’s small businesses do not have the reserve capital to sustain closure for much longer in the future.

The urgent need to reopen small businesses is compounded by all of the people who have filed for unemployment and the passing of government stimulus packages. We have to reopen the economy soon. If we don’t, it will eventually collapse and we will have more problems to handle.

But once businesses reopen without a coronavirus vaccine in place, a major spread of the coronavirus could happen just like the second wave in the 1918 flu pandemic. Coupled with the facts that hospitals are furloughing medical staff, government officials have stopped all of the planning and preparation efforts, and the testing will not be as widespread as needed to ensure we quickly self-quarantine, the number of confirmed cases could rise again in the future.

Maintaining Coronavirus Pandemic Planning, Communication and Preparation

To combat the coronavirus threat to public health, first responder and emergency management organizations must continue to monitor the situation. They should keep their archive plans that were developed during the first phase of the coronavirus pandemic; they should communicate to their employees that there could be a likely return to the same stay-at-home quarantines that have occurred during the past two months.

[Related: Officers Adapt to COVID-19 with New Protocol, New Response Realities]

This reverse transition back to self-quarantine will be tougher, especially if it happens during the summer months when people traditionally take a vacation with their families and want to visit their friends. Executives will face a real battle to get citizens to revert back to the precautionary measures taken in this first wave of coronavirus infections.

Be prepared, and communicate the potential future of the pandemic now. With luck, we won’t have a second wave of COVID-19 cases, but we will be prepared to serve our communities if and when it does occur.

future planning for coronavirusAbout the Author: Dr. Randall W. Hanifen is a shift commander at a medium-sized suburban fire department in the northern part of the Cincinnati area and a fire service consultant. He is also a faculty member at American Military University, teaching courses in its Emergency & Disaster Management program. He has a B.S. in Fire Administration, a M.S. in Fire Service Executive Leadership, and a Ph.D. in Executive Management of Homeland Security. He is the associate author of Disaster Planning and Control. Randall serves as the Executive Chairperson of a County Technical Rescue Team, a Taskforce Leader for FEMA’s Ohio Task Force 1 US&R team, and is the Vice-Chair of IAFC Company Officers Section. He serves as a member of NFPA 1021 Fire Officer and NFPA 1026 Incident Management committees He is credentialed as a Fire Officer by the Center for Public Safety Excellence and has been accepted as a Fellow to the Institute of Fire Engineers. Randall has provided presentations and trainings for the Ohio Fire Chief’s Association, Fire Rescue International, Emergency Management Institute, and the IAFC Board of Directors. 

Jarrod Sadulski

Dr. Sadulski is an Associate Professor within our School of Security and Global Studies. He has over two decades in the field of criminal justice. His expertise includes training on countering human trafficking, maritime security, effective stress management in policing and narcotics trafficking trends in Latin America. Jarrod frequently conducts in-country research and consultant work in Central and South America on human trafficking and current trends in narcotics trafficking. He also has a background in business development. Jarrod can be reached through his website at for more information.

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