Imagine an educational system where students can learn at their own pace and advance based on their mastery of knowledge, not just based on their age. In this episode, Dr. Wanda Curlee talks to APU business professor and STEAM advocate Dr. Kandis Boyd Wyatt about the role of artificial intelligence in the K-12 classroom. Learn how AI is being used in the classroom during the pandemic, how it has opened the door to targeted and customized learning, and how it has forced educators to reimagine and reshape traditional learning structures. Also learn the obstacles preventing such advancement, why teachers shouldn’t be afraid that AI will replace them, and resources for educators to learn more about incorporating AI into the classroom.
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Dr. Wanda Curlee: Welcome to the podcast. I’m your host, Wanda Curlee. Today, we are going to be chatting about infusing artificial intelligence, or AI, into the K-12 curriculum. Exciting topic, as far as I’m concerned. Today my guest is Dr. Kandis Wyatt, who is a professor of logistics, supply chain management, and reverse logistics courses at American Public University. Kandis, welcome, and thank you for joining me.
Dr. Kandis Wyatt: Thank you so much, Wanda, for the invitation. I am excited to speak to you about AI and K-12 curriculum.
Dr. Wanda Curlee: Wonderful. Kandis, can you give us a little bit about your background and why you find this topic so exciting?
Dr. Kandis Wyatt: Yeah, absolutely. My nickname is Professor STEAM, science, technology, engineering, arts, and math. Because for the past 26, 27 years, my passions have been STEAM and teaching. So first on the teaching side, I am a professor at American Public University, and I’ve taught as an adjunct at several universities before that time. As you mentioned, I currently teach in the School of Business and that is with transportation and logistics management.
And so STEAM, it’s a relatively new term. People know the term STEM, science, technology, engineering, and math. Well, the A, standing for arts, has been infused because we realize that the artistic expression is really, really important. So STEAM is science, technology, engineering, arts, and math. It’s basically those five core concepts that we’re trying to infuse into the daily experiences of our future leaders, K-12 to help them understand education from a hands-on perspective.
So why am I passionate about this?
The statistics are actually kind of bleak, Wanda. In terms of the new jobs in STEAM, about 30% of the new jobs expected by 2030 haven’t even been invented yet.
Dr. Wanda Curlee: I would believe that.
Dr. Kandis Wyatt: Yeah, absolutely. Now let’s add to that, that there is a growing gap between these new careers in STEAM and the individuals needed to fulfill these positions. So we had this gap. We have jobs that we need to fill and we don’t have people with the skillset to fill them.
Start a Business degree at American Public University.
So I’m on a mission, if you want to call it that, to try and expose the world of STEAM to tomorrow’s leaders, especially K-12. And so that’s what I’ve been passionate about for several years and that’s what I’ve been working on in various ways either by engaging youth, talking to fellow instructors and researchers, and trying to fuse this world of K-12 education and STEAM.
Let’s talk about artificial intelligence. Artificial intelligence in its most simplest form is basically trying to get a machine to think like a human. And so for a kindergartner, artificial intelligence sounds like this really technical term and it might sound like it’s something that’s really hard to grasp, but my goal is to help bring those concepts to the classroom in a easy to understand and engaging manner. So that’s just a little bit of my background as to why I consider myself Professor STEAM, and why I have a passion for K-12 education, and especially when it comes to artificial intelligence.
Dr. Wanda Curlee: Kandis, that sounds very exciting. I definitely think that K-12 education should have AI infused in it, whether it’s STEAM or whether it’s not, because it’s going to be a part of our lives going forward. So why do you think artificial intelligence is important for K-12 education?
Dr. Kandis Wyatt: Hmm, great question. Well, simply put, AI is the way of the future. And in fact, AI is here today. If we take a moment and just look around the room that we’re in, there is artificial intelligence or some form of that, probably in the things that we’re doing right now.
And what we need to do is help our future leaders understand what that is and that it is something to aid us and to help us live better lives in so many ways. So I really do think that AI is important because it is going to be a part of our everyday activities moving forward and we need to help our youngsters understand that.
Dr. Wanda Curlee: It’s interesting that you say that because I have a granddaughter and grandson, and their parents, my son and daughter-in-law, have a Google system in their house and they already know how to say, “Hey, Google, so and so.” Of course, they don’t understand it’s artificial intelligence. They’re only four and five years old, but they’re so used to it.
Dr. Kandis Wyatt: Yeah, absolutely. I’m a single mother of two and I can tell you firsthand that yeah, my kids are the same way, but I’ll go a step further. They use those assisted technologies to help them with their homework. So in all seriousness, I’ll have my son or my daughter, they’ll finish their math assignment. And then I’ll say, “Okay, well ask,” fill in the blank, “to double-check your work.” And then literally I’m sitting at the table with them and they will ask and they think it’s so fun that they can get the answers out of the air by asking a question.
But the point is they’re using artificial intelligence to double-check the work that they’ve already done. So again, it’s a practical, real-life example of how we make these work. I think what’s really important is just what you said. It starts with the teachers. It starts with the parents. It starts with everyone being comfortable with this topic of artificial intelligence to help explain it to the student.
Dr. Wanda Curlee: Absolutely. We talked about the smart assistant, but are there other AI systems to sign explicitly for K-12? Or do you see these smart assistants just being adaptive for K-12?
Dr. Kandis Wyatt: Absolutely. First, let’s just mention that we’ve been in a pandemic for over a year now for most of the people in the United States, if not globally. And at least in the United States, many of our public school systems had to pivot literally at a moment’s notice and move from a brick and mortar in-person environment to a virtual environment. That in itself required artificial intelligence.
I can tell you as a mother of two, that I became a pseudo-teacher. I in no way want to say that I’m a teacher because teachers do an extraordinary amount of work, but the reality was I had to make sure that my kids were engaging in class, completing their assignments, uploading assignments, all at the same time while this teacher is trying to teach to them virtually.
And that in itself is artificial intelligence. So a lot of people don’t like to think of teacher bots as the wave of the future, but there was a lot of automation that was required as we moved from the brick and mortar environment to the virtual environment.
For example, submitting assignments electronically. There were times where I literally took a picture of the assignment and I had to upload it to a certain folder for the teacher. And I did that maybe the first week or two, but believe it or not, my four-year-old and my eight-year-old were able to master those exact tasks in just a matter of a couple of weeks.
The other thing is grading. Think about a 10-question quiz and how an AI system can help the teacher grade those quizzes in record time and could save that teacher extra time so he or she could devote it to other areas of instruction.
And then very simplistic things, attendance. How do you take attendance every day? Well, back in my day, it was manual where you had to literally count the numbers of students. But now, literally, when my two kids log in, that is an automated system.
So the point is, at least from the instructor point of view, there’s a lot of AI that we’re already seeing in the classroom that’s helping enable our teachers to devote their time on what really matters, which is the actual instruction.
Dr. Wanda Curlee: Interesting. Let’s flip this a little bit. Let’s go to the students. You mentioned some ways that the student interacts with the AI, but do you see them interacting with AI and, obviously at different levels, because they’re in different grades with the AI to help them with curriculum? Maybe as you said, they already get the answers from a smart assistant, but how about teaching the curriculum? Do you see AI doing that?
Dr. Kandis Wyatt: Yeah. What I’ve noticed with AI is that AI allows the student to learn at the student’s pace. And so let me just explain that. If we go back in terms of our educational system, 50, 100 years, you had one school house and you had kids of multiple ages, all being taught by one teacher. So we’ve kind of evolved.
And up until the pandemic, you had different grades, but the grades were all expected to teach a certain set of subjects and the students were supposed to master those subjects by a certain date and time. And then those students progress to the next grade.
Well, artificial intelligence can help the student learn at his or her own pace. Think about it this way. The traditional classroom is you sit and you listen to the teacher, the teacher tells you about a certain subject, and then you go home and you do some type of homework that reinforces it.
Well, artificial intelligence, for example, could allow the teacher to prerecord the lesson and then you can actually focus on the actual activity. And so by prerecording the lesson, the student is able to learn at their own pace. They could play it, replay it, play it at a time where they’re mentally acute, because as we know, people learn in different ways and people are at their peak at different times of the day. So just having artificial intelligence tweak the traditional ways that we have been learning can actually help students advance.
And so think of it this way. Maybe a student’s very good in math, but the student maybe has some challenges with reading comprehension. That student, with the aid of AI, could probably advance past their grade in math. And so maybe a grade or two into the future, and it breaks this mold of everybody has to learn at the same pace in the same time.
Likewise, that same student may have some challenges with reading comprehension and AI could provide additional resources so that that child can focus or hone in on those challenging areas, so that that student does meet the requirements that are needed. So again, it’s just another way of artificial intelligence infused into the classroom to help the student learn at that particular pace.
Dr. Wanda Curlee: Well, it sounds like we’re almost taking a step back and maybe just having one classroom again and various teachers in there, depending on how Johnny and Susie learn at their own pace. So you would have students that are in eighth grade math, but maybe fourth grade reading, and then others in eighth grade reading and fourth grade math.
Dr. Kandis Wyatt: Yeah. I think that’s a very real possibility moving forward. And then likewise, if you have students who can master some of the key core subjects, maybe they have the option to explore and participate in more specialized activities and topics as well. So like you said, it opens the door to more targeted learning, but also learning at the pace that suits that student.
Dr. Wanda Curlee: It would also allow those students that are grasping, let’s say all that subjects well, to start as some do already in the traditional STEM, taking college classes. They would be able to take it through AI now.
Dr. Kandis Wyatt: Yeah, absolutely. I’m a big proponent, obviously of virtual learning. I teach at a university that is 100% online. So of course I’m biased in this area, but also let’s think about this from an economic standpoint. AI brings education to everyone in the same manner. There are so many individuals in the United States, if not globally, who do not have the privilege of education. Either they live in remote areas, they don’t have access to the internet, or maybe the educational system in that particular area is not as strong as it could be. So you’re absolutely right that AI could level the playing field.
And then let’s go back to what I said before. We have this gap between science, technology, engineering, arts, and math careers and positions, and the people who are qualified to fulfill those positions. So AI can level that playing field by providing the information in the same manner to all students, regardless of where you live, regardless of your socioeconomic background, and regardless of your perspective in some cases. It provides everyone with the same opportunities.
Dr. Wanda Curlee: This is exciting because as you and I both know, AI is already in the business environment. And while you don’t know how to code it with the ones and zeros, Lord knows I can’t, you do know how to have to work with it. And so the earlier the students can learn how to work with AI, and not be scared of it because too many professionals today are scared of it, it just opens up the world for everybody. My opinion.
Dr. Kandis Wyatt: Yeah. I really agree with that. It opens up the world. It opens up the possibilities. And as you said, artificial intelligence, I think just the words, for some people is a little off-putting. And like you said, they’re scared. And sometimes when you’re scared you make some decisions that might not necessarily be the best decisions. So, we want to open the world of AI, we want to open the world of STEAM, and we want to make it very common to engage in AI activities in the K-12 environment.
Dr. Wanda Curlee: The teacher might think that they’re going to be replaced. Do you see this happening because of AI?
Dr. Kandis Wyatt: My answer is yes and no. I’m going to use an analogy and then go back to the analogy with the teacher. I teach transportation and logistics management at American Public University. And one of the things that I focus on is AI and transportation. And so many of us may or may not know this, but we have autonomous vehicles right now on the highways, driving, delivering goods as we speak.
But it’s kind of scary because people are thinking, “Well, wait a minute, if I’m a trucker and you’re a truck driver, and it’s my job to go from point A to B and deliver these goods, and now you have autonomous vehicle that can do it, it means I’m not going to have a job anymore. So I don’t like AI. AI is not for me and I’m going to do everything that I can to speak out against it.”
Well, what I tell people is jobs are always evolving. Careers are always evolving. And so would that truck driver necessarily be driving that same route in the same way that he or she drove that route 20 years ago? Probably not.
AI is going to help you with that. AI may help you because of GPS and telling you the most efficient route to go. AI may help you by letting you know when there’s severe weather that might impact your path. AI may help you in some ways understand what services are needed on that vehicle by, in real time, letting you know if you need an oil change or your air pressure is low. So the point is, is that your job may not be compromised, but it may be different.
What we’re finding is maybe you might not need as many truckers to actually transport the goods or the services, but you might still need people to program those vehicles in order to get to their destination. You need to have people who understand how to make those machines think like a human.
So there are still going to always need to be human intervention. That’s the point I’m trying to convey to our listeners. But the point is that the jobs or how the jobs are structured, will evolve and change over time. That’s the analogy.
Now let’s take that analogy and apply it to the classroom. Again, I’m a professor and I’ve heard this argument several times, “Well, we don’t need AI in the classroom because it’s going to replace me. Oh no, I need a job. So we don’t need AI in the classroom.”
And I beg to differ. Especially in the K-12 environment, as I mentioned, AI can serve like a teacher bot. It can serve like an assistant. It can help the teacher with those routine activities. And I mentioned those before, like attendance, grading, submitting assignments. Those are all ways that AI can help.
As I mentioned before, the teacher could record the lesson and through AI, send it to all of the students so that they look at it in the evening for “homework.” And I’m using air quotes, even though you can’t see me. And then the next day they work on hands-on activities with the teacher, even in the virtual environment.
So the point is, is that AI can restructure the classroom. AI can serve as a way to assist our educators, and AI can help the student learn at his or her pace. So I am a big proponent of AI in the K-12 curriculum.
Dr. Wanda Curlee: Let’s switch back to the student if we may, for a minute. And you’ve talked about this for a little bit. You did say that the AI could adapt maybe to each student, but how would it adapt? How would it know? And would the teacher monitor that the AI is adapting correctly for that student? We hear about this black box and AI where something goes in, something happens in the middle, and something comes out and we don’t know what happens in the middle, and we’re not sure of what comes out is right.
Dr. Kandis Wyatt: Yeah. I’ll give my son as an example. I will not name the platform, but there is something called assisted learning technologies, ALT. Without naming the platform, I’ll tell you what the platform does. My son logs in, and it’s a certain topic, and he has to read, and then he has to answer a question. Then he has to read and answer a question. And so here’s where AI comes into play. AI will realize if he’s getting the answer right, the next question and the next question and the next question are increasingly more challenging.
However, if he’s reading and he’s answering questions and he’s not getting it right, AI understands that and then tries to stay at that level, stay at that pace, reinforce those concepts to make sure that the student masters those concepts before moving forward. So that’s an example of AI in the classroom that’s actually allowing the student to learn at his or her pace.
Dr. Wanda Curlee: Good. So continuing that, what if a student does the work and understands everything in grade four or any grade let’s say by November. Would that student pass on to a grade five? Would that student stay with their cohort, so to speak, but continue studying more advanced than maybe other students? How do you see that happening in the classroom of the future?
Dr. Kandis Wyatt: Absolutely. If the classroom of the future is 100% virtual, I really do think that you can have students learning at their own pace. And like you said, you may have a student who literally is acing sixth grade math. And at the same time is at a fourth grade reading level. You may have someone who is in that same class, that’s at fourth grade and fourth grade. So how does that work?
It’s when it’s time for individualized learning or group learning, then you try to group those students who are similar in that particular subject at that particular time. Again, time for math. Yeah, you’re absolutely right. If we’re using these virtual platforms, that person might be placed in a group where it’s students from various grades, but they’re all at that sixth grade math level. So they’re all learning at the same level, but their ages may be different or their grade might be different. And then same thing could happen for the different subjects.
So it might just mean that at different points of the day, everyone in the school has math at 9:00 AM, but that doesn’t necessarily mean you’re going to be in third grade math if you’re in third grade. If you’re learning at sixth grade math, you’re going to be with the sixth graders or you’re going to be with that sixth grade group, so to speak.
I actually think moving forward, we might even break this mental construct of grades. Why do you need to be in the third grade, if you can ace and master some of the concepts of other grades? So it might be progression levels, so we might need to rethink first grade, second grade, third grade.
Because again, we want to provide the information at the pace that works best for the student. And so we don’t want to penalize a student if it takes him or her a little more time to master a concept. But likewise, we want to applaud efforts when we can see that we do have some students who can excel in certain areas. So to me, again, that’s just a way of rethinking, reshaping, and re-imagining what the classroom can look like in the future.
Dr. Wanda Curlee: That is just a concept that is very interesting to me as well. I can see where in the future we talk about tests that you have to take in order to graduate from high school. I can see in the future possibly that the tests go away and you just have to master the skill sets based on what AI and the teacher are saying.
And you also, when you say a student would go to sixth grade math or fourth grade reading, depending where they’re at, I would assume they would have different instructors for those. So a teacher that is a fourth grade teacher would still stay in the fourth grade, but the sixth grade teacher would still be teaching the sixth grade math or the sixth grade reading, et cetera.
Dr. Kandis Wyatt: It’s possible. What I have seen in some of our more progressive schools is that you have subject-matter experts or SMEs. So you don’t necessarily have like a fourth grade teacher, you have someone who excels in elementary science. And so they might have, again to use the current terminology, they might be teaching science at the first grade level, second grade level, third grade level, fourth grade level. So they’re not a teacher solely for one grade, but they’re teaching a subject. And then as students progress, they move from one pod or one group to the next.
Again, I think it’s re-imagining what the classroom looks like, because I’m sure many of us can relate. There were probably some subjects where we absolutely loved, it was great, it was exciting. We loved the teacher. It was wonderful. And there was other subjects that if we never heard about it again for the rest of our lives, that would be okay with that.
And so we have to just understand that students learn in different ways and how can we make that learning environment conducive for every student? Not just the students who need help, not just for the students that are excelling, but for every student.
Dr. Wanda Curlee: Great. Let me focus on something a little different. I look at the future and I think, “Wow, this is incredible. These students are going to have something that’s beyond imagination at this point.” But AI at this point is expensive. How do you see all students getting the benefit of AI?
Dr. Kandis Wyatt: That is a great question. First and foremost, because we are still in this pandemic and because the majority of our K-12 classrooms are virtual, first and foremost, every student needs to have access to the internet. And believe it or not, there are still students who don’t have that luxury and I’m emphasizing the word luxury.
I’ve read articles and I’ve viewed videos where students are literally using a cell phone to do their assignments because that family does not have internet. And then add to that, if one or both parents work outside the home and they have to take that cell phone with them, then that student doesn’t even have the capability of doing the work that he or she is required to do for that particular day. So you can see how it already sets some students back if they don’t have the basic tools to help them succeed.
So, first and foremost, I think we need to re-imagine the internet, internet access, and making sure that every student has some way to access the internet. And as I mentioned before, sometimes it’s because of low socioeconomic status. Sometimes it’s just because of your geographic location, that you don’t have internet access. That’s number one.
Number two, every student needs a device. I use device because back in my day, it was a computer. Now for a lot of people, it’s a laptop and some people even use tablets. But the point is you need some type of device to communicate with the education system in some way, shape or form.
And again, with this pandemic for the past year, we found that many, many school districts had to spend a lot of money on just getting these resources to their students. And there’s a whole list of other things that they need. I mean, school lunches. I think the statistic I read was 24% of all students utilize some form of student lunch in the public school system. Almost one in four.
Dr. Wanda Curlee: Yeah, I read that as well. That’s sad.
Dr. Kandis Wyatt: Yeah, it’s sad. So there’s a lot of issues that had to be addressed during this pandemic. So getting internet access, being able to get a warm meal, one, two, three times a day, having a device where you can communicate. And then also we have to think about in many of these situations, you have parents who are working outside of the home and you have the oldest sibling taking care of the younger siblings while that sibling is trying to accomplish their classes and their workloads.
And then so many of our young ones are dealing emotionally with the change of going from in-person brick and mortar to virtual and just learning how to adapt to being remote. So I think these are all still issues that even though we’ve been in this pandemic for over a year, still continue to plague us.
Dr. Wanda Curlee: Let’s assume that soon the pandemic will be kind of put to ease. People get their vaccines. We’re starting to get back to normal. I foresee COVID being a yearly vaccine, just like the flu shot, and students are back in the classroom. How will the K-12 classroom future look like?
Dr. Kandis Wyatt: Oh, that’s a good question. Yes, I’ve heard that we are at the beginning of the end when it comes to the pandemic. And yes, I hope so as well. I mean, I in no way want to make light of the hundreds of thousands of people who lost their lives over this past year. And, at the same time, I think we can learn a lot in terms of our educational system and what transpired over the past year.
Again, we had a lot of school districts trying something new and trying it out. I don’t want to leave out private schools as well because some of them tried new things as well, just to try and keep the students up to speed and continuing their learning experience.
Let’s assume in a perfect world, like you said, the COVID crisis is over and we are returning to “normal.” I really hope that we continue to think about this virtual environment and how it can benefit students.
For example, how many times, when you were young, were you sick and you had to stay home and you missed a day of school? What if AI could help you learn virtually from your bed if you’re not feeling too well? Maybe you can participate in one or two activities that day and you don’t lose a full day of school.
Likewise, I know when I was young, my family used to take trips for Thanksgiving or Christmas, and sometimes those trips didn’t necessarily line up with the school calendar. So we missed a couple days. What if you’re able to have a device and still participate in class, even though you’re physically not in the building? I think these are some little things that we can start to think about.
We do have some students who have social and behavioral challenges. They’re stimulated by a lot of the things that happen in the classroom environment. How can we help those students learn possibly virtually? Even though we don’t like to admit it, there are some students who are thriving in this virtual environment. And yes, I want to acknowledge there are some who still have challenges.
So I think what AI can do is open the world of possibilities that we need to think outside the box. We need to think of each student individually and not necessarily as a group. And how can each individual reach their highest potential and how do we target the learning to help them achieve that?
Dr. Wanda Curlee: Great. My brain is just going a mile a minute here. I’m thinking about virtual reality coupled with AI. Can you imagine students that can’t go on a field trip even now, because they can’t afford it or because it just gets too expensive or there’s something going on in that part of the world. But be able to put on a virtual reality headset, coupled with AI, and going to see Paris, going to see Belgium, going to see the Middle East. That is just mind blowing to me.
Dr. Kandis Wyatt: Yeah, absolutely. Again, we have some people who are visual learners. We have some people who learn via audio. We have some people who learn kinesthetically by actually doing something. We need to develop curriculum that speaks to each student and each different way of learning.
And you’re absolutely right. VR, you know what? That’s probably going to be our next podcast, Wanda. We need to just have a podcast just on VR. But yeah, virtual reality again is a technology that is very prevalent depending on the field that you’re working in. And now we need to take that VR and make it very prevalent in the classroom environment. It’s amazing I think how we could take the learning and learning tools and mechanisms and take it to the next level using VR.
Dr. Wanda Curlee: Absolutely. What are some resources you would recommend to help both students and teachers learn more about AI and education because I’m sure it’s still scary to some?
Dr. Kandis Wyatt: Both of my parents were teachers in the elementary school environment. My father was a science teacher for sixth grade and my mom was a computer science teacher at an elementary school. So I’ve kind of been around teachers my entire life in some way, shape or form. My sister is a librarian as well.
What are some resources? What I found is many of our teachers already belong to groups. That’s the most generic way I can say it, via social media. And it’s amazing how these communities connect and talk and share resources.
The first thing I would say, if you’re a teacher, you need to get connected on social media. And again, I’m not going to name any social media because I’m not trying to advertise, but there’s at least nine, 10 different ways that you can use the internet to connect to social media.
And then once you go to that social media channel, you just search for AI and education, AI and kids, AI and K-12 curriculum, AI and exercises in the classroom. You’d be amazed at how many groups you can join. To me, that’s the most relevant, real-time information that you can receive about the evolving world of AI and education.
Now, I’m a professor. Of course I would be remiss if I didn’t say that there are a lot of journal articles and journal publications that you can search and you can find out about AI and education. But usually with teachers, I’ve found they need something now and usually they want something that has already been tested. So getting that personal recommendation from a fellow instructor is usually very helpful. So I’m a big proponent of groups via social media.
I don’t necessarily recommend any one book, but of course your local library, I really, really, really want each and every person who’s listening to understand that your librarian at your local library wants to hear from you. So take a moment, talk to your librarian, send him or her an email and say, “Hey, I would love to see more resources on AI and education in the XYZ library.” And I think that starts the conversation so that we have resources at our fingertips.
So those would be just a couple of the suggestions I have because AI and education, we need resources in our daycare centers. We need resources in K-12 curriculum. We need the resources in our public library systems. And by having it all around us and literally a stone’s throw away, it will help make the concepts a little more engaging, comfortable, and conversational. I think that’s what we need to do to help our next generation become more familiar with AI and education.
Dr. Wanda Curlee: Kandis, thank you so much. This has been so interesting and exciting topic of AI and K-12. Who would have thought all of this was available for our teachers and our students. Do you have any last words you would like to leave for our listeners?
Dr. Kandis Wyatt: Sure. The future is upon us right now. I really would like to say to our listeners that the world of science, technology, engineering, arts and math is the future and the future is here today. So taking some time to speak to youth, to engage youth, to help them become interested, not just in STEAM, but as we mentioned, AI as well, is really truly important. Because if we are not proponents of AI and STEAM, it will be challenging for the next generation of K-12 to be. So let’s all engage in AI and understand how it’s importance will help us all.
Dr. Wanda Curlee: Thank you to our listeners for joining us. We have some exciting podcasts coming in the area of artificial intelligence. Stay tuned and stay well.